Rosalie Gascoigne Catalogue Raisonné

Rosalie Gascoigne in her studio, working with wood from sawn-up cable drums. The work under construction is City Block (1996). Photographed by William Yang.

Artist: Rosalie Gascoigne (1917 – 1999)

Title: Rosalie Gascoigne: A Catalogue Raisonné

Formats: Online (PDF and ePub); print-to-order and limited hardbound edition

Publisher: Australian National University Press, Canberra

;Publication Date: August, 2019

Availability and price: Online download for free; print-to-order A$175, hardbound (edition of 150) A$195

Scope: The catalogue covers her full career and production, which began in 1973 and ended with her death in 1999.

Objects: 690 assemblages (including studies), 2 color photo-screen prints

Supporting research documentation: A chronology, a biographical note, an essay on her engagement with the country around Canberra, and a note on materials. There are also detailed appendices on her solo exhibitions and on selected group exhibitions (both with extracts from significant reviews and additional comments by the artist and author), a list of works in public collections, a comprehensive bibliography, an alphabetical list of works, and an index.

Database: FileMaker 

Organized and Supported by: Independent

Key Contributors: S. C. B. “Ben” Gascoigne (initial database and photographic records); Martin Gascoigne (research, compilation, writing, author); Mary Eagle and Daniel Thomas (advisors) 


Interview with Martin Gascoigne

What are the goals of the Rosalie Gascoigne catalogue raisonné?

The first objective is to provide an authoritative record of the artist’s body of work. The second is to promote an understanding of the artist’s objectives, sensibility, and career in order to help foster an informed appreciation of her achievements.

In the 1990s, Rosalie’s work began to inspire ‘homages’ and imitations by other artists, some of which could potentially be marketed as her works, and this became an extra incentive to complete and publish the catalogue.

How did the project develop and how close is its release?

The foundations were laid by Ben Gascoigne, the artist’s astronomer husband, who kept excellent records. He began photographing his wife’s work in the mid-1970s, often recording the dates on which the negatives were processed. In the mid-1980s he started to compile a database of her works; recording titles, materials, dimensions, and their first exhibition. At first he recorded his data on cards, then he transferred the information into a computerized database in the 1990s, to which his grandson Charles added images of the works. He also compiled individual albums for each of her exhibitions and, also in the 1990s, started recording the dates on which he photographed works. In 2001, I took over the database and added information about materials, inscriptions (where available), subsequent exhibition histories, references in reviews and the literature, and comments Rosalie made about specific works in her letters, talks, and interviews.

Publication of the catalogue marks the completion of an integrated estate management strategy to promote an enduring appreciation of the artist’s work. I had a long-standing interest in contemporary art, which I collected, and was closest to her within the family in matters of art, so I took the lead in managing her artistic legacy when she died in 1999. It helped that I am trained as an historian. Development of the catalogue was tied to management of the estate.

A major milestone was the publication of the exhibition catalogue From the Studio of Rosalie Gascoigne (ANU Drill Hall Gallery, 2000), which included memoirs by Ben Gascoigne, the artist’s studio assistant Peter Vandermark, and her studio partner Marie Hagerty, as well as lengthy extracts from Rosalie’s letters in the 1970s dealing with her evolution as an artist. Two other milestones occurred in 2008–10: the National Gallery of Victoria mounted a full retrospective; and Rosalie’s papers and those of her husband were sorted and donated to the National Library of Australia, where they are available without restrictions on access. 

The catalogue raisonné was submitted for publication in 2016 and will be released in August 2019.

Which catalogues raisonnés served as reference points?

The primary one was Bea Maddock: A Catalogue Raisonné (Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery, 2011), edited by Daniel Thomas (also an advisor on this catalogue).

What was the experience like compiling the catalogue raisonné?

As the compiler, I was very fortunate to draw on Ben Gascoigne’s excellent records. There were also advantages and disadvantages in being the artist’s son. As an example of the former, I had a unique body of letters which the artist wrote to me in the 1970s with a lot of information about her evolving art practice and her engagement with art and the art world. The disadvantages included the risk that any assessment of her work that I might make could be seen as influenced by my position, so I steered clear of assessment, and sought advice from experts when art history issues arose.

What archival resources informed the catalogue raisonné?

Outside of the Papers of Rosalie Gascoigne and Papers of Ben Gascoigne collections at the National Library of Australia, Canberra, there are family letters (notably letters from Rosalie to their two sons living abroad in the 1970s, from which art-related extracts have been published in From the Studio of Rosalie Gascoigne) and Ben Gascoigne’s photographic archive (covering Rosalie’s work from the mid-1970s until her death). In due course my letters will go to the National Library of Australia, and the photographic records to the National Art Archive at the Art Gallery of New South Wales. A comprehensive list of archives is also included in the catalogue bibliography.

It seems as if documenting the work of an artist who came to their practice later in life could expedite the research process. What part of the research felt like it was the most straightforward, and what required the most effort?

Rosalie was fortunate in having a scientific husband who kept methodical records for much of her career, and that her career blossomed as his was winding down. His records provided a solid foundation for cataloguing. It also made a great deal of difference when the project got underway that there was a large community of people available who knew the artist, whose memories were fresh, and whose records were intact; including studio assistants, the gallerists with whom she exhibited, and curators who selected her works for exhibitions and public collections.

The issues that required more effort included data on inscriptions (invariably on the back of the work and not recorded either by Ben or the gallerists, so the catalogue is incomplete on this point), some aspects of dating (where the photographic record or correspondence was at variance with the inscribed date), and tracking down Rosalie’s talks and interviews (especially for any references to works of art). I was also unable to see many of the works to check them against their draft catalogue entries. So these gaps in the data gave rise to another issue: whether to publish or not. I decided to proceed before age caught up with me, because I was confident that all the works had been captured, that any gaps in the data concerning their descriptions were peripheral, and that any gaps could be offset by the unique insights I brought because of my relationship with the artist. If I had chosen not to go ahead, there was the strong possibility that the catalogue would not be published.

But the hardest issue was deciding how to handle the contents of the studio, and what should be regarded as a finished work. This was firstly an estate management issue and subsequently a cataloguing issue. Having to second-guess the artist, the author’s mother, made this really hard. Another issue was where to draw the line between pieces eventually categorized as ‘studies’ and others which might be better regarded as offcuts from a completed work or the sawn-up remains of work the artist destroyed. There were many shades of grey, and I was mindful of the criticism of executors who have taken it upon themselves to destroy works by their artist. In the end, I worked out that Rosalie’s legacy was secured by a significant body of really strong work, and that whichever way I fell on a particular shade of grey would not affect the outcome. Over time, the arts community will also work out for itself, individually and collectively, what they consider important and good and what is less significant, responding accordingly.

How was provenance research?

Early on, I made the decision not to worry about provenance too much other than for works in public collections, not least because I did not have good records and knew owners had privacy concerns. The most important issue was the date and circumstances under which the artist parted with a work, because the availability of such data helped confirm the authenticity of a work. This was not hard to document because Rosalie sold most of her output through her gallerists, and rarely gave pieces away. The absence of a sales record thus becomes a cautionary flag and helped identify several pieces as works stolen from the studio, which were eventually recovered and the thief successfully prosecuted. 

How did the collaboration with the Australian National University come about?

I knew of the ANU Press from other publications and authors, and thought it was the best option. The objective was not an expensive vanity project with limited circulation. Instead, I wanted a catalogue that would be easily and widely accessible, including for students (the artist’s work is on the curriculum in some Australian state education authorities), so the free download with print-to-order option was very attractive. It also meant the catalogue could include an image of each work. Late in the production cycle, the Press decided to make a small hard-bound edition for libraries and other heavy users, which pleased me mightily. The association with the ANU was a bonus because of the family’s long association with the University.

Another option might have been a web-based catalogue, but I was so far advanced with a publication in a more traditional format that I was reluctant to change over. There was also a big issue about the difficulty of putting in place arrangements for a website and its long-term management. 

How are works organized within the catalogue raisonné?

The organization is chronological, by date of completion. I considered separating the studies, but in the end decided it was simpler and more meaningful to include them. Being in the body of the catalogue, they could be seen more readily in the context of the contemporaneous completed works.

When did you know which artwork would be on the cover? Was this an easy decision?

I suggested several works to the ANU Press designer, Teresa Prowse, and she developed a proposal based on one of them, Sunflowers (1991). Yellow was a signature color of the artist and all the works I proposed were yellow. Teresa’s proposal worked really well, so it turned out to be a fairly easy process.

What existing resources would provide a complementary perspective on the artist along with the catalogue raisonné?

Rosalie’s talks and recorded interviews, especially the latter because they capture in a way the catalogue cannot the vitality of her delivery and the nuance in her message. They are listed in the bibliography.

Other projects on the horizon that will also shape Gascoigne’s legacy? 

The Australian writer Hannah Fink is working on a biography of the artist.


To learn more, visit or contact the Gascoigne catalogue raisonné at

Interview conducted by Carl Schmitz, Director of Communications and Publications

Feitelson and Lundeberg Catalogues Raisonnés

Lorser Feitelson and Helen Lundeberg, c. 1960s

Artists: Lorser Feitelson (1898 – 1978), Helen Lundeberg (1908 – 1999)

Scope: The catalogues raisonnés will cover each artists’ oeuvre of paintings. The earliest known painting by Feitelson is a self portrait from 1915. He painted until his death in 1978. Lundeberg’s earliest painting was Apple Harvesters from 1930, which she painted as Feitelson’s student. Lundeberg’s last painting, Two Mountains, was painted in 1990.

Objects: Each artist has about 500 objects that will be included in their respective catalogue raisonné. Feitelson produced more work than Lundeberg, but a great deal was lost in a fire in the 1950s.

Organized and Supported by: The Feitelson/Lundeberg Art Foundation and Louis Stern Fine Arts, which represents the Foundation.

Database: FileMaker

Planned format and launch date: Print, 2020. We are still discussing the possibility of an online component.

Key Staff: The visual components of our catalogues raisonnés are due to the work of our designer, Lilla Hangay, and photographer, Gerard Vuilleumier. The project is overseen by Wendy Van Haerlem, the president of the Feitelson/Lundeberg Art Foundation and a former student of Feitelson. Lauren A. Ross is the project manager. Wendy and Lauren’s work is complimented by Tim L. Campbell, database manager and researcher. Jean Patterson will be the copy editor.


Interview with Lauren A. Ross on behalf of the Feitelson/Lundeberg Art Foundation

What are the chronologies of the catalogue raisonné projects for Feitelson and Lundeberg?

The Foundation placed a call for collectors in 2012. At that time we also began amassing data, photographing all work still in the Foundation’s collection, and visiting museums and private collections. I visited the Archives of American Art to view the Feitelson/Lundeberg Papers in 2012 and 2018, and visited the UCLA archives to view the Tobey C. Moss Gallery Records on Feitelson and Lundeberg. These archives have all been instrumental in filling gaps in provenance and locating information on untraced works. 

Although the project officially began in 2012, there were many steps taken beforehand that has made our progress possible. An inventory was created by Helen Lundeberg and Wendy Van Haerlem in July 1978 in order to establish fair market value of the artists’ assets at Feitelson’s date of death for IRS purposes. The result of the inventory was organizing the artists’ finances into two trusts and paving the way to legally and financially establish the foundation. While it was never intended as an art-oriented inventory, it has been an irreplaceable resource because it is the only inventory created by one of our artists. It has allowed us to distinguish between titles and nicknames of works, which has been important because some works were exhibited repeatedly under a variety of titles. Also of great value to our project is a dissertation written by Diane Moran in 1979 entitled The Painting of Lorser Feitelson. Moran recorded extensive interviews with Feitelson and took a great deal of notes which have been excellent primary sources for our purposes.

How will the catalogues raisonnés tell the story of how Feitelson and Lundeberg evolved as artists? Absent drawings, will there be anything like juvenilia?

We decided not to include drawings in these volumes because Feitelson was an avid draftsman and felt that including them would prevent us from getting the thing published in a timely fashion. Lundeberg, on the other hand, did fewer drawings, but she did paint some studies for paintings that will be included. We will also include drawings in cases where the final painting has been destroyed, lost, or was not completed. Both artists began painting at fairly young ages, but we don’t have anything from their respective childhoods, unfortunately.

The Feitelson/Lundeberg Art Foundation recognizes the catalogues raisonnés as its “most ambitious project to date.” How does this ring true? Are these defining projects for the Foundation?

The Foundation has offered a variety of programming, scholarships, grants, and publications to promote art in California. However, never before has the Foundation undertaken such a long-range venture, nor employed so many people to complete a project. The initial board of the Foundation is mostly intact and is made up of people who knew Lundeberg and Feitelson. Thus it is a personal goal fo a few members of the board to see this endeavor through. That said, it seems too early to judge if the catalogues raisonnés are the Foundation’s "defining" project. The Feitelson/Lundeberg Art Foundation is established in perpetuity and the best may be yet to come! 

What is it like to work on two catalogues raisonnés simultaneously? Do they have parallel timelines to completion?

The catalogues will be published at the same time, but we are a bit further along on Lundeberg’s catalogue raisonné. In the early process of gathering data we were often able to collect information for both artists simultaneously, but we started writing the entries for the Lundeberg catalogue raisonné first. Partially this is due to the simple fact that Lundeberg’s works have distinct titles and she produced fewer paintings. Starting with Lundeberg has helped us iron out some of the issues with our system before diving into the massive number of untitled works by Feitelson. 

If everything was going to press tomorrow and the “methods” sections were all that remained, what kind of work would that take?

We wrote a first draft of the methodology section after a CRSA panel at CAA a few years ago, although we are certainly still tweaking it! After hearing about other catalogue raisonné projects it seemed clear that it was important to define our terms early on.

The editors of the Jackson Pollock catalogue raisonné argued that “analysis should precede synthesis.” From the raw data of object entries to interpretative essays, what is your view of the analytical function of catalogues raisonnés?

The Feitelson Lundeberg’s Foundation’s aim is to make the data in the catalogues raisonnés as correct as possible, to the best of our ability. The Foundation intends to be transparent about any uncertainty regarding a work and to discuss our rational for inclusion of such works in the volume. We will not be including essays about the artists in the catalogue raisonné; these were published in 2012 as monographs on the artists. The Foundation feels the catalogues raisonnés will provide raw data from which scholars will be able to form their own conclusions.

Speaking as an independent contractor from a philosophical point of view, it seems to me that the process of choosing what data belongs in the catalogue raisonné inevitably creates synthesis, regardless of best intentions! The work of determining which paintings will be included or where undated paintings will be located within the volume and all sorts of other decisions that go into the catalogue raisonné create a document that is not objective. We are humans, after all. It seems foolish to think that organizing a bunch of data into a giant compendium could possibly result in a document free of bias. 

What went into the decision to have the project support collectors in obtaining new photography of their artwork? Has it yielded the desired results?

We have tried our best to have our photographer capture each painting for the catalogue raisonné to maintain consistency between images. For the large part, we’ve been successful. Due to budgetary constraints, we have only been able to photograph works located in California, but lucky for us, the majority of paintings are still in California. We’ve also supported new photography for collectors out of state in the hope that we’ll get better images than the old slides or images we have and that they will update their records. 

How does it feel when a missing work reappears?

It’s so satisfying! We just had a painting that was on our “untraced” list reappear last year. We also had a black and white photograph of a very similar work, on which we had no information. Having all the pieces fall into place to create a match is wonderful! Marian Kovinick, the Foundation secretary, keeps tabs on upcoming auctions, which has helped us find some works that were buried in private collections or large corporations. Old sales records have proved to be helpful in some cases, but often following a lead ends by placing the search in the hands of a collection manager. The collections manager at a large corporation corresponded with me for multiple years in an attempt to locate a Feitelson painting. He scoured their archives and warehouses and wrote to executives across their offices on our behalf. Unfortunately, nothing had been found when he retired earlier this year. On the flip side, I was told by a disgruntled employee at a large regional bank to stop writing to her with new information about the painting that is or was supposedly in the collection! 

As an artist, what is it like being so involved in the life’s work of these painters while creating your own works of art? Can you trace any sources of inspiration back to your research work?

The main influence of this “day job” on my studio practice is that I often think to myself, “I really should keep an inventory of my work and use archival storage materials.” I know these are good practices, but so many artists, including myself, don’t work in an organized fashion.

In a more personal way, I think working on the catalogues raisonnés has made me consider the way art institutions and movements christen some artists meanwhile so many other artists go unrecognized. I’ve recently made a lot of work about my grandmother, who was a painter. She showed in a few exhibitions, but never became well known. Looking through her oeuvre after she passed away while simultaneously working on Lundeberg and Feitelson’s catalogues has definitely influenced the way I think about the life of an artist, and my own practice. On a formal level, I love the architectural spaces and palette of Lundeberg’s paintings, but I’m not sure where or how that has influenced me (yet).

What place do Feitelson and Lundeberg have in art history? What will it mean for them to have catalogues raisonnés?

I think everyone who has worked on the catalogues raisonnés for Lundeberg and Feitelson believe they are under-recognized artists. A catalogue raisonné is in some respects the ultimate legitimizing publication on an artist, but more importantly, we hope these publications will offer scholars a more comprehensive understanding of our artists’ careers. 

What are your recommendations for resources on Feitelson and Lundeberg?

Not to toot our own horn, but the Feitelson/Lundeberg Art Foundation and Louis Stern Fine Arts published monographs on the artists a few years ago which are outstanding resources on the artists and include lots of fun photos. The book on Feitelson is entitled Eternal Recurrence by Diane Moran. Lundeberg’s monograph is written by Suzanne Muchnic and is entitled Poetry Space Silence.

The Lorser Feitelson and Helen Lundeberg Papers Collection at the Archives of American Art is largely digitized and accessible to the public via their website:

The UCLA archives also have a good collection of materials on Feitelson and Lundeberg within the Tobey C. Moss Gallery Papers

The Foundation’s website provides further resources on the artists. The Foundation is currently in the process of building our own archive of research materials which will include Lundeberg’s sister’s papers and letters from the artists donated by recipients. 


To learn more, visit or contact the Feitelson/Lundeberg Art Foundation at

Interview conducted by Carl Schmitz, Director of Communications and Publications

Harry Bertoia Catalogue Raisonné

Courtesy Knoll, Inc.

Artist: Harry Bertoia (1915–1978)

Scope: All of the mediums used by the artist including graphics (monotypes, woodcuts, drawings, pen and ink, etc.), paintings, furniture, jewelry, metalware (flatware, hollowware, functional items), sculpture, and large scale commissions, spanning the years 1935–1978

Total objects: estimated 20,000+ works

Organized and Supported by: Harry Bertoia Foundation

Database: PanOpticon 

Planned Format and Launch Date: Digital, 2022–2024

Price and Availability: Free public access with registration

Key Staff: Dr. Marin R. Sullivan, Catalogue Raisonné Director


Interview with Celia Bertoia, Director and Founder, Harry Bertoia Foundation

Tell us about the history of the Harry Bertoia Foundation. Was a catalogue raisonné of your father’s work always part of the Foundation’s mandate?

The Harry Bertoia Foundation was founded in 2013 with a mission of “furthering the legacy of Harry Bertoia.” At the time, I had no idea how that “furthering” would take place! We began with exhibitions and lectures at universities and museums. Within a few years we began to understand that creating a catalogue raisonné was of prime importance. Because Bertoia never signed or titled his works, establishing an authoritative, official source of information was essential since unauthorized copies of his simpler works were popping up everywhere. 

Were there projects that the artist’s family, estate, or the Foundation needed to complete before embarking on a catalogue raisonné? 

Upon Bertoia’s death in 1977, his estate passed to his wife Brigitta (who died in 2007) and to his three children. Much later, it was discovered that many of the bequeathed sculptures were unaccounted for. Once these issues were resolved over a three-year period, those sculptures became the basis for an endowment fund for the Foundation, as well as providing it with a loan collection for exhibitions. The Foundation was then free to proceed with other projects, such as a catalogue raisonné.

Bertoia’s oeuvre – and the scope of work you’ve defined for his catalogue raisonné – is exceptionally broad. How do you see the research for the CR proceeding?

We propose to cover all of his works in all mediums, but one step at a time. We expect to research one work from each category in our first year, 2019, so that we encounter as many possible problems right away and resolve them sooner than later. Once our first basic entries are accomplished, we intend to tackle the best-documented works or those with clear provenance first. Bertoia’s large-scale commissions are fairly well researched and published, and thus should not require extensive investigation to complete. Plus, they hold high interest for the public, which, while not a priority, is a consideration, especially in obtaining funding for the catalogue raisonné. One of the advantages of online publication is that although separate categories of works must be clearly established, they can easily be cross-referenced. As our funding and team of qualified catalogue raisonné researchers grow, we hope to move more quickly and tackle several areas at once. Although we are already accepting submissions of works to be reviewed for possible inclusion in the catalogue raisonné, we will not have a final list of the catalogue raisonné entries for several years.

Will the catalogue raisonné include editioned works? If so, how do you envision documenting works created as multiples?

We are lucky that Bertoia did very few editions. A handful of his woodcuts were published as multiples in the late 1930s and early 1940s. In 1977, knowing that lung cancer would soon overtake him, he created one of his sounding sculptures (tonals) in an edition of 50. The tonals were numbered for identification. We have not fully assessed how to handle them. 

As far as we know, those are the only editions. As for his furniture, we will have entries for each of Bertoia’s designs and will note of the various prototypes that Bertoia literally had his hands on. 

What are the projected research and publication timelines for the project? 

We are attempting to be realistic and estimating conservatively, considering the vast body of work we are dealing with. By the end of our first year we hope to have fully catalogued at least ten various works that will lay the groundwork for the rest of the 20,000! We hope to finish enough entries to begin publishing our initial results online within three to five years, and to have a substantial portion of the total entries completed in 10 years. 

Did the artist or his galleries maintain inventories or photographic records of his work? What other kinds of documentation – correspondence, material and technical records, writings or statements by the artist – exist or remain to be gathered? 

We are fortunate to have what we refer to as the “shop files,” an ongoing record of what went in and out of Bertoia’s shop during the bulk of his career. He was his own secretary, so they are not always complete. But there are hundreds of artist sketches, sometimes with dimensions and materials, all now indexed (this took five years to finish). We also have hundreds of Polaroid photos of sculptures that are being sorted out by interns. We have an incomplete – but growing – collection of gallery and museum catalogs, books, newspaper clippings, magazine articles, auction catalogs and some handwritten letters by and to the artist. Online access to auction and sale records has also been invaluable. Plus, we are lucky to have two authors in our midst, myself and Beverly Twitchell, who have written and researched books on Bertoia. And there are still some living collectors who knew Harry and have provided irreplaceable information. Having the website attracts those who want to tell their Bertoia stories, and we do give attention to these, albeit with an informed, skeptical ear.

You’ve noted that your father “never signed his work.” What physical attributes of the works or types of archival documentation will the Foundation or its advisory experts rely on to determine whether a work will be included in the catalogue raisonné?

While there is broad diversity in Bertoia’s works, there is also a recognizable, biomorphic, organic style that runs across everything he did. Another factor is that Bertoia’s unique welds are distinguishable by those who are familiar with his work. Finish details, patination, cutting techniques, brazing techniques, welding style, kinds of materials, bases, and other minute characteristics of his works all come into play when identifying his autograph works. Happily, provenance is still traceable in many instances. We are currently in the process of developing clear and strict guidelines for the inclusion of works in the catalogue raisonné. This is, of course, the crux of any catalogue raisonné project!

The Bertoia Foundation is somewhat unusual in providing Certificates of Authenticity and written valuations for his works. What considerations led the Foundation to provide these services? 

Authenticity and appraisal are two separate processes and rarely go together. The public seems to confuse or interchange the two, but one is about verifying the artist and the other has to do with comparing the artist’s work to the current art market to determine financial value. Appraisals do not affect the catalogue raisonné in any way. Items that are authenticated will be entered into the catalogue raisonné but legal advisors inform us that inclusion in the catalogue raisonné does not necessarily ascertain authenticity. The Foundation offers Certificates of Authenticity for several reasons. 1) The number of replicas is on the rise, and we want to differentiate the real from the copies. 2) The Foundation has enough resources at its fingertips to (usually) find the original work in its records. 3) Authentications provided by other organizations have generated questions, so we now offer an authorized source in the Foundation. We will not provide this service forever but for now the advantages for our clientele outweigh the problems.

 Appraisals actually come out of our for-profit sister organization, Bertoia Art & Appraisal, and have nothing to do with the catalogue raisonné project. These might be for charitable donations, tax purposes, estate issues, insurance coverage or a variety of other needs. This is a fairly straightforward process and our appraiser is accredited by the American Society of Appraisers. We are experts in Bertoia, so this is another way to serve our clientele. 

You are the author of The Life and Work of Harry Bertoia: The Man, the Artist, the Visionary (Schiffer Publishing, Ltd, 2015). How did researching and writing this book inform your thinking about the catalogue raisonné? 

The two years of research and interviews for the book showed me that there was so much more work and so much more variety to Bertoia’s work that had not yet been covered in any books or articles, including mine. Since my project was more a memoir about the man than a treatise on his art, I came to see the catalogue raisonné as a way to resolve many questions related to his work. 

The Foundation recently named Marin R. Sullivan, PhD, to be Catalogue Raisonné Director. What qualities and types of expertise do you and she see as being essential to the creation of a Harry Bertoia catalogue raisonné? 

Dr. Sullivan has the scholarly attributes, the passion for Bertoia, and the writing skills all required by the position. And her specialty is modern sculpture. I first met her when she was researching Bertoia for an article she was writing. We crossed paths again when she became the co-curator for the upcoming Bertoia exhibition at the Nasher Sculpture Center in Dallas, scheduled for fall 2020. Any catalogue raisonné director must be detail-oriented, easy to talk to, committed to integrity, and willing to alter procedures if experts or facts dictate so.

What do you hope the catalogue raisonné will contribute to scholarly and popular understanding of your father’s accomplishments and legacy?

We saw the auction houses and galleries that sold Bertoias describing similar pieces in numerous ways and the use of the term Sonambient (the artist’s coined and registered trademark for his sounding sculptures) gone wild. We hope that by providing an authorized glossary with terms that are universally accepted by scholarly and public audiences Bertoia’s work will be acknowledged and take its rightful place, whatever that may be, in the history of fine art as well as in the history of “design.”

What other plans does the Foundation have?

One major initiative is to find a museum home for the Sonambient Barn Collection, the artist’s personal collection of sounding sculptures. Bertoia made clear his wish that the collection, in toto, would go to an American museum for the public to enjoy Sonambient concerts. Another of the Foundation’s goals is to fully scan and index all its archival files. A side project, which has recently come to fruition, was to open an office / gallery for the Foundation. Just late last year, we acquired a modest commercial space, which will open in March, in St. George, Utah, to house the archival files, provide a workspace for organizing our projects, and show off some of the Foundation’s collection.

For more information visit: or contact the Harry Bertoia Foundation at

Interview conducted by Susan Cooke, CRSA Director of Programming

Reflections on the Jackson Pollock Catalogue Raisonné (1978)

Eugene V. Thaw. Photograph courtesy the Eugene V. Thaw Revocable Trust.

The following essay by Eugene V. Thaw (1927–2018) was included in Jackson Pollock: New-Found Works (Yale University Art Gallery, 1978), an exhibition publication celebrating the release of the four-volume Jackson Pollock: A Catalogue Raisonné of Paintings, Drawings, and Other Works (Yale University Press, 1978). Our thanks to the Eugene V. Thaw Revocable Trust for their permission to reproduce this text. While there is no on-going Pollock catalogue raisonné project, the completed work of Thaw and co-editor Francis V. O'Connor (1937–2017) remains a touchstone. – Carl Schmitz, Director of Communications and Publications


Reflections on the Jackson Pollock Catalogue Raisonné

Eugene Victor Thaw

As a student of Art History I once had daydreams of dazzling the world with my connoisseurship (another Berenson, I thought). Instead I became an art dealer and have remained one for nearly thirty years. 

Meyer Schapiro had been one of my teachers at Columbia and, through a family friend, I met the sculptor Herbert Ferber. Both urged me to see the Pollock show (1949) at Betty Parsons Gallery to learn what was going on. That was my first contact with Pollock's work. Later, I would occasionally go to the famous 8th Street artists' "Club" and twice, during exhibitions at my newly opened gallery, Pollock himself came in but we never exchanged a word. I became friendly with some artists who knew him well and his pre-eminence dominated the world in which I then moved. Later, my wife and I began to spend summers at East Hampton and although we were not friends, Pollock was always present in our consciousness. We were there the night he was killed and remember the shock and awe next day as automobiles gathered in front of various artists’ houses when the news spread. 

It was some years later that my wife and I became close friends of Lee Krasner Pollock, on a personal as opposed to a professional basis. We spent many hours in her house at The Springs during visits by people working on Pollock – interviewing, taping and organizing exhibitions. We quite naturally got caught up in the whole process of Pollock research. Lee often discussed with us her desire for a catalogue raisonné of Pollock's work and her frustration at the difficulty in getting it accomplished. Finally, having become a so-called “private dealer" and suffering pangs of guilt and remorse that I had chosen the marketplace instead of scholarship, I myself volunteered to undertake the project. Naively, I thought of it as a hobby or therapy which would relieve business pressures. Lee Krasner, wiser than I was, warned me of the scope of the undertaking but agreed to let me try. The Marlborough Gallery, which was then technically responsible for preparing such a catalogue, warily stepped aside in my favor. 

I soon realized what an enormous project faced me and that I had little idea how to begin. After several false starts, I met Francis V. O'Connor, and by joining forces with him and the very special talents that he possesses, the work was launched. 

Francis was an art historian and a skilled archivist. He not only knew his Pollock material; he was also a highly organized scholar comfortable with detail. I am the opposite and was, I am afraid, of little help in much of the crucial development of the catalogue. As an art dealer, however, I am supposed to have an "eye" and it is that faculty, if indeed I possess it, that has helped the book. In any case, contrary to the prophets of doom who observed us starting out, we have, I think, really complemented each other and have become a strong team.

What is an art dealer doing in O'Connor's professional world? And what about the ethics of such activity? Dealers, of course, are among the principal users and beneficiaries of accurate catalogues of artists' work. Indeed, catalogues raisonné constitute the core of our libraries. Perhaps for that reason dealers have, historically, been the main catalysts for producing them. Both the Cézanne and Pissarro catalogues by Venturi were done under the supervision of Paul Rosenberg; Georges Wildenstein produced catalogues of the work of Chardin, Fragonard, Ingres and Gauguin; Daniel, his son, has done Manet, partially finished Monet and his foundation has begun a number of other projects; César M. de Hauke did the great Seurat catalogue, and Brame was the publisher of the Lemoisne "Degas". Other examples one could cite include the Vollard "Renoir", the Bernheim-Jeune (Dauberville), "Bonnard", the Schmit "Boudin", and the Daumier catalogue by Charles Maison, a "marchand-amateur" as well as a scholar.

The ethical problem of a dealer obtaining valuable information under the cover of preparing an artist's catalogue was squarely faced for the first time, I believe, in the case of the Pollock enterprise. By written contract, my firm, E. V. Thaw and Co., agreed not to trade in Pollock's work until the book was published and the information in it available to all. I can only lament that, correct though I have always felt such a proscription to be, I have lost some lucrative opportunities in the nearly six years it has taken to produce the book.

Finally, although it may have been naive to approach the job in the way I did, and the effort was ultimately far more demanding in both concentration and time than I had expected, the catalogue was, after all, the kind of therapy I had hoped for as well as a constant reminder of the complex disciplines which underlie the study of any great artist's work.

Clyfford Still Catalogue Raisonné

Clyfford Still, 1973. Photograph by Sandra Still Campbell, courtesy the Clyfford Still Museum © Sandra Still Campbell.

Artist: Clyfford Still (1904 – 1980)

Scope (artistic practices) and Years Covered: Paintings and works on paper, 1920–1980

Organized and Supported by: Clyfford Still Museum

Database: Qi from Keepthinking

Planned Format: Print (and perhaps an online version eventually)

Complete, categorized objects: 1,122 paintings and approximately 2,735 works on paper

Key Staff: Bailey Placzek (Catalogue Raisonné Research and Project Manager); Dean Sobel (Clyfford Still Museum Director); David Anfam (Director of Clyfford Still Museum Research Center)


Interview with Bailey Placzek on behalf of the Clyfford Still catalogue raisonné project

What were some of the motivations for initiating a catalogue raisonné project? What are the goals of the project?

The Clyfford Still Museum has 95% of everything the artist created in its collection on-site, so a complete catalogue raisonné has always been part of the Museum’s plans given how little of Still’s total oeuvre has been studied or even seen. The expected completion of the painting inventory later this year is a major milestone for the Museum and is the ultimate impetus for beginning the catalogue at this point in time (we completed the works on paper inventory in 2012).

What is the publication timeline for the project?

At this point, we are hoping to publish the first of the multi-volume publication in late 2020–early 2021. The subsequent volumes will ideally be published on an bi-annual basis.

Since its opening in 2011, the Clyfford Still Museum has maintained an active publications program. Has that benefited the development of the project?

Yes. We have been able to think creatively about how and in what format we would like the volumes to be published. We are still trying to nail down some details about its publishing format, but having the option to publish the project ourselves has opened up a lot of doors for us and allowed us to move forward.

How does a catalogue raisonné serve the artist’s legacy in ways that are either distinct from or complementary to the Museum? Are there any other particular advantages to having the project under the umbrella of the Museum?

As the steward of Clyfford Still’s art and legacy, the Clyfford Still Museum’s mission is to preserve, exhibit, study, and foster engagement with its unique collections. Because the artist’s estate was sealed off from public and scholarly view for so many years, the catalogue raisonné represents a total unveiling of Still’s life work. Thus, the project is inherently tied to the Museum’s goal to promote accessibility, understanding, and study of Still’s place within and contribution to twentieth-century American art history.

As mentioned above, the Museum holds the vast majority of Still’s artistic output, as well as his complete archive and personal library. There are countless advantages to having the catalogue raisonné project under the umbrella of the Museum, but the most significant advantage is our direct access to not only 95% of his works, but also his inventory records, correspondence, and exhibition photographs. Furthermore, the institutional knowledge of collections and conservation staff who have been present for the Museum’s inventory from start to finish has been—and will continue to be—an invaluable advantage for our particular project.

What foundational resources have aided in the development of the project? Did the artist compile inventories of his work?

Yes. The artist and his second wife compiled meticulous inventory records of his works. Though these records don’t contain everything he created, they do describe about 80% of the project’s total object count. The artist’s archive here at the Museum has also proved profoundly advantageous. Correspondence files with major collectors, museum directors, gallery owners, and friends has helped fill provenance gaps for those works not in our collection, and exhibition photographs shot by Still and his wife show early works that have since been lost or destroyed.

One third of the 5% of works that did leave the artists collection are located in private collections around the world or have been “lost” according to the artist’s inventories. These roughly 90 works present some challenges for us, and we anticipate that the majority of our research moving forward will be dedicated to uncovering these works’ whereabouts and histories. So I kind of view the inventories and plethora of records on-site as a double-edged sword, since they have made us aware of many things that we don’t have any records or leads for. While this is frustrating for us since our goal is to present everything he created with complete, verified histories, I try to continually remind myself that many artists probably created things no one even knows about and that Still's records provide us with the ability to present a more comprehensive picture of his artistic trajectory, even if some of the works have been lost forever or there are gaps in their histories.

Outside of the Museum, what are some of the critical art research resources available in the region?

The universities in the area have been incredibly helpful, as well as the public libraries in Denver. The Denver Art Museum also has an art research library accessible via appointment. However, most of my research so far has been with non-regional facilities, since Still was most active on the West and East coasts. The archive at Washington State College, where Still was a student and professor has provided helpful documentation, as well as obvious repositories like the Archives of American Art. Honestly, the Archive here at the Museum is unbelievably rich and is probably one of the most valuable twentieth-century American art research resources available in the Rocky Mountain region.

Are there any catalogues raisonnés that have served as instructive models?

The catalogues for Barnett Newman, Georgia O’Keeffe, Mark Rothko, and Lee Krasner have all been instructive and helpful in the early research stages of the project.

Do you see any useful connections from the number of catalogues raisonnés that have been published on the artists of the Abstract Expressionist generation?

I’m especially intrigued by the figurative stages that many Abstract Expressionist artists worked through in the late 1930s–early 1940s immediately prior to reaching their signature abstract styles. So many of them were taking in and merging such a multitude of influences—Surrealism, anything that Picasso was doing, Regionalism, world art—before they each just spit them all out and emerged with such pure, individualized voices. I’ve also been thinking about how each of the Abstract Expressionist artists utilized paper in their process and how that is translated in their catalogues. Still was so prolific on paper; I’m hoping that the connections we can make within Still’s catalogue will communicate how integral these works were to his practice.

How do you imagine the artist would react to receiving the catalogue raisonné treatment?

The concept of the catalogue raisonné is the ultimate manifestation of Still’s philosophy as an artist. He believed that all artists’ work should be experienced in groups without the distraction of other artists, and that an artist’s contribution and vision can not be fully understood unless their oeuvre is viewed in totality. I believe the inventory books the Stills created in the 1960s were their own efforts to compile an initial catalogue. It really is the ultimate validation of Still’s artistic endeavors and situates him right alongside all the great artists of history—where he sought to be.

What is your favorite quote either from or about Still?

There are so many; he is so quotable!!! I think my favorite though would have to be, “My works are for the observer, what he sees or feels in them. … They could be swords slipped through the belly; tangential references to felt geometries; life and death merging in fearful union; or parables for the blind. As for me they kindle a fire—through them I breathe again, hold a golden cord, find my own revelation.”

For further information, contact or visit

Interview conducted by Carl Schmitz, Director of Communications and Publications

Jack Tworkov Catalogue Raisonné

Jack Tworkov in his Provincetown studio, 1960. Photo: Arnold Newman, © Arnold Newman / Getty Images. Courtesy Tworkov Family Archives, New York.

Jack Tworkov in his Provincetown studio, 1960. Photo: Arnold Newman, © Arnold Newman / Getty Images. Courtesy Tworkov Family Archives, New York.

Artist: Jack Tworkov (1900 – 1982)

Scope (artistic practices) and Years Covered: Paintings, drawings, and prints; 1920s–1982

Organized and Supported by: Estate of Jack Tworkov, managed by Artist Estate Studio, LLC

Database and Format: panOpticon online

Complete, categorized objects: Publicly published entries for 457 paintings and 160 works on paper

Price and Availability: Free and available publicly online

Key Staff: Jason Andrew, Editor; Hermine Ford and Helen Tworkov, Advisors and daughters of Jack Tworkov


Interview with Jason Andrew on behalf of the Jack Tworkov catalogue raisonné project

How has the catalogue raisonné matured in the 6 years since the online launch of Jack Tworkov: A Catalogue Raisonné Project?

What has matured most has been a major shift in scholarly acceptance of online platforms supporting catalogue raisonné research. My research is ongoing and this approach, with an aim to be definitive, makes for a living and breathing resource for the life and work of Jack Tworkov. It’s exciting that so many artists and estates are now pursuing online publishing to make available their catalogue raisonné research.

How does the catalogue raisonné help us to understand Tworkov as an artist–perhaps both within and outside of the sphere of Abstract Expressionism?

The purpose behind the launch of the online catalogue was to bring focused attention to the life and work of Jack Tworkov. Having the catalogue available online offered greater exposure, making information and imagery available to a world-wide audience. As a result, we have witnessed a greater understanding and appreciation of Tworkov and his work. As an artist most notably connected to history as a first generation Abstract Expressionist, this catalogue, with one click, expands the conversation beyond the significant ‘50s to include Tworkov’s groundbreaking conceptual paintings of the ‘70s and early ‘80s (which today are still relatively unknown).

What are some of the ways in which archival resources have cast a light within the catalogue raisonné?

The original launch of the online catalogue occurred simultaneously with the publication of the artist’s writings by Yale University in 2009. Letters to and from Jack Tworkov that spoke specifically about the loan and sale of the artist’s works were extremely helpful in charting provenance and exhibition histories. Moreover, Tworkov’s writings, as critical primary source material, offered a window through which we could understand the psychology of the artist.

In recent years we have expanded our research to the archives of galleries, museums, and institutions that acquired work or where Tworkov taught or exhibited. We recently uncovered an interview the artist gave responding to a questionnaire regarding one of his epic paintings titled Thursday (1960), which at the time was in the Sarah Campbell Blaffer Foundation and now is in the collection of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. The transcript offers a first hand account that ranges from biographical information to the impetus and intention behind the making of this painting. It was the first time in the 16 years of working with this material that I learned that when making this painting Tworkov “had in mind thunder; not the image; but the sound.” He said, “Thursday was really Thor’s day.” Just when you think you have learned everything you thought possible, new research moves us closer to the facts. It was amazing for me to learn this.

Tworkov is also among the rare number of artists who have had both their paintings and their writings (Extreme of the Middle: Writings of Jack Tworkov, Yale University Press) compiled. How are his ideas reflected in his works of art?

Tworkov was one of the great intellects of his time. His daily journals and studio notes add to the psychology of the artist. In many instances the artist would record the start and finish of a painting in his journals, and this information is reflected in the catalogue of his works. And often times, dated paintings have helped us archive the letters in which he discusses the painting. The writings and the works of Jack Tworkov serve in tandem to animate and contextualize the catalogue. So much of his writings were unpublished, so we are tasked with the process of revisiting these unpublished writings to learn even more about the time and mind frame of the artist when he made these master works.

What went into the decision to incorporate images of the artist’s own inventory cards into the catalogue raisonné?

Authenticity is at the core of every catalogue raisonné project. We were lucky enough to have in our archive the original individual inventory cards maintained by the artist as well as those later maintained by his widow. These inventory cards are the backbone of our research. Each has been scanned and linked as supplementary images within each entry. They are our authenticity markers for all works viewable publicly online.

How did the Tworkov catalogue raisonné come to be included in the New York Art Research Consortium’s web archive for born-digital catalogues raisonnés? What factors went into the decision to pursue this partnership?

In 2014, I attended the CRSA-NYARC panel on the subject of archiving and research preservation at the Brooklyn Museum Library. There I met Sumitra Duncan, the NYARC Web Archiving Program Coordinator at the Frick Reference Library. She explained that the Frick was beginning an ambitious process of digitally archiving important databases. And of course, I wanted in. Sumitra was eager to see how this could be processed. So we worked together for about a year to make it happen. I think our Tworkov catalogue was the first to be digitally archived by NYARC. The decision to pursue this partnership was simple, as having multiple copies of my research archived on as many digital platforms as possible will only work to our benefit. Further, it offered another point of access to the life and work of Jack Tworkov.

As Tworkov was the brother of painter Janice Biala, how did their relationship as artists benefit the catalogue raisonné research process?

Although they were siblings, Tworkov and Biala were two very different artists. Their art was as distinct as their personalities. While both knew the value and importance of an archive, I have found little research material in the Biala archives that support our Tworkov catalogue. However, in letters from Paris to her brother in New York, there are many times when Biala sent Tworkov lists of paintings for exhibition in New York. These letters have been instrumental in charting the movements of Biala’s paintings, and will be helpful as we continue to compile the life’s work of Biala in anticipation of launching her own online catalogue raisonné project in early 2020.

Tworkov was one of the artists featured in the “Paints a Picture” series published by Art News. Has Tworkov’s studio practice and technical art history helped to shape the artist’s catalogue raisonné?

Articles like the one you mentioned, written by Fairfield Porter in 1952, offer great insight into Tworkov’s studio life. At the time of this article, which was one of the first in a series, Tworkov was renting a studio across the hall from his friend Willem de Kooning. More telling were the photographs by Rudy Burckhardt that accompanied the article which capture Tworkov straddling his worktable and mixing color in palm-sized tin cans. These photographs, among many others in the archive, capture Tworkov and his work in situ. We see not only the paintings in progress, but also drawings for these paintings as well. And with a closer look over the artist’s shoulder, you’ll discover an inventory of paintings hanging on his studio wall. It’s any archivist’s greatest dream!

Has having a developed catalogue raisonné helped to inform other publications about the artist?

One of the major goals of the Estate is to publish a fresh new monograph on Jack Tworkov. Despite his many solo retrospectives and historic group exhibitions, there has never been a single monograph published on the artist. Plans are underway to find a publisher who will combine the writings with the art. The catalogue will be a vital tool.

And, with access available from any place with an internet connection, the catalogue has been very successful in facilitating exhibitions and acquisitions as well as greater collaboration among collectors, curators, and other researchers.

What’s in store for the next six years of the Tworkov catalogue raisonné?

There are plans to redesign our website and the access point to the online catalogue. As technology progresses, so must we innovate. Beyond this… it’s research, research, and more research! As one question is answered, another is asked.

To learn more, visit or contact the Estate of Jack Tworkov at

Interview conducted by Carl Schmitz, Director of Communications and Publications

Sol LeWitt Wall Drawings Catalogue Raisonné

Sol LeWitt installing  Wall Drawing #136  at Chiostro di San Nicolò, Spoleto, Italy, 1972. © 2018 Estate of Sol LeWitt/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Photo by Giorgio Lucarini.

Sol LeWitt installing Wall Drawing #136 at Chiostro di San Nicolò, Spoleto, Italy, 1972. © 2018 Estate of Sol LeWitt/Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. Photo by Giorgio Lucarini.

Artist: Sol LeWitt (1928 – 2007)

Scope: Wall Drawings, 1968 –

Organized by: Artifex Press

Database and Format: Artifex Press proprietary software platform; online catalogue raisonné

Complete, categorized objects: 1,351 wall drawings, comprising 1,785 distinct artworks and approximately 3,500 installations

Price and Availability: Individual subscriptions are $500, $50 annual maintenance fee. For Institutional subscriptions, rate based on size and type of institution.

Key Staff: Lindsay Aveilhé, Editor; Christopher Vacchio, Director of Research; Christine Shang-Oak Lee, Research Associate


CRSA: How involved was the artist with the catalogue raisonné project?

SLCR: LeWitt began the catalogue raisonné project in 2006, shortly before his death in 2007, building on previous catalogues raisonnés covering the years 1968–1992 published in 1984, 1989, and 1992, respectively.

CRSA: How did object entry formats evolve from the printed editions to the current online catalogue raisonné?

SLCR: LeWitt determined the format for primary caption information for wall drawings in the early 1970s. The previous print catalogues only included this primary caption information for each wall drawing, and did not include images of each wall drawing. In addition, his 1984 catalogue did not include diagrams for each work. The online catalogue includes full caption information for each wall drawing, as well as diagrams for all wall drawings that have them, installation histories, selected publication histories, and detailed notes explaining the evolution of works.

CRSA: Were there any issues around how to differentiate wall drawings from the rest of the artist’s oeuvre?

SLCR: Luckily, wall drawings are quite distinct from LeWitt’s other bodies of work. There do exist a number of works on walls, but they are not considered wall drawings because they were not given wall drawing numbers by LeWitt, and are thus not included in the catalogue raisonné. Because of their conceptual nature and the fact that they are installed and reinstalled over time, the cataloguing of wall drawings necessitated a distinct approach from LeWitt’s other work. Each installation of each work had to be confirmed and tracked individually, to catalogue the evolution of each wall drawing over time, as LeWitt edited and refined the concepts for the works, or created one-time variations for specific exhibitions.

CRSA: What other catalogues raisonnés were consulted during the development of the project?

SLCR: Dan Flavin: The Complete Lights was particularly useful to our team as we discussed the best ways of representing these works in entries and how to be as transparent as possible in presenting information that could not be confirmed. The André Cadere Catalogue Raisonné was also useful in helping us craft a distinct methodology of cataloguing these conceptual artworks.

CRSA: What were some of the most essential research resources and institutional collaborations?

SLCR: The archive of materials collected by LeWitt’s studio manager Susanna Singer over the three decades she worked with LeWitt, as well as LeWitt’s personal archives at the LeWitt Collection in Chester, Connecticut, were our most important sources of documents, as were the Marzona archives at the Kunstbibliothek Berlin and Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden, the Giuseppe Panza Collection archives at the Getty Research Institute, the Archives of American Art, and the Museum of Modern Art’s exhibition archives. In addition, our institutional outreach involved contacting hundreds of museums and galleries that have hosted installations of wall drawings, as well as interviewing dozens of the drafters who installed the works over the past five decades.

CRSA: Was digital color management employed in the documentation of the wall drawing installations?

SLCR: Yes, particularly in the scanning of analog materials for display in a digital catalogue. However, because wall drawings have been installed in so many venues over time, and the materials and formulations used to install them have evolved, there is a meaningful variation in the appearance of images that is true to the actual installations. As such, we limited the use of color correction primarily to physical photographs which were discolored or damaged.  

CRSA: What are the catalogue raisonné’s multimedia highlights?

SLCR: We have included several dozen videos showing the installation of wall drawings at different venues, to help illustrate the differing processes of installing these works. One particularly interesting piece of media is a video clip of the installation of LeWitt’s Wall Drawing #26 at the Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago in 1969, accompanied by the audio of LeWitt relaying his instructions for the work for the exhibition “Art by Telephone.” 

CRSA: How were the issues of authentication and provenance relevant to the project?

SLCR: LeWitt issued certificates of ownership in various forms before replacing and standardizing the certificates for wall drawings in 1984. While the new certificates supersede the originals, some originals were never replaced. Additionally, some installations were not recorded at the time, and thus not originally given certificates, but have been determined to be distinct and valid artworks. We have worked closely with the Estate of Sol LeWitt, led by his daughter Sofia and the artist’s chief assistants, throughout the process of identifying and verifying the works.

CRSA: Will future updates be issued on a rolling basis or collected for periodic release?

SLCR: Future updates to the catalogue will be collected and published on a regular, periodic basis.

CRSA: If this catalogue raisonné was considered an evidential biography of the artist, what would be a good descriptive subtitle?

SLCR: A good subtitle would be “In and Out of the Studio.” Perhaps the single biggest misconception about LeWitt is because he did not install most of his wall drawings himself, that he wasn’t putting a great deal of effort into his work. In reality, Sol worked in his own studio every day, creating the plans for wall drawings, as well as paintings, gouaches, and works on paper. His studio practice was essential to his wall drawing practice, even in those cases where he did not install wall drawings himself, and allowed him to experiment and work out concepts that would span the different media he worked in.

To learn more, visit Artifex Press: or contact the Sol LeWitt Wall Drawings Catalogue Raisonné at

Interview conducted by Carl Schmitz, Director of Communications and Publications

Arnaldo Pomodoro Catalogue Raisonné

Arnaldo Pomodoro in front of “Sfera grande,” 1966-67 (bronze ø 350 cm) installed on the roof of the Italian Pavilion at the Montreal Expo, 1967. Photograph Ugo Mulas © Eredi Mulas. All rights reserved.

Arnaldo Pomodoro in front of “Sfera grande,” 1966-67 (bronze ø 350 cm) installed on the roof of the Italian Pavilion at the Montreal Expo, 1967. Photograph Ugo Mulas © Eredi Mulas. All rights reserved.

Artist: Arnaldo Pomodoro (b. 1926)

Scope (artistic practices) and Years Covered: The Catalogue Raisonné sets out to be an ongoing and in progress oeuvre of Arnaldo Pomodoro’s entire artistic career and specific work methodology, that, starting with sculpture, will document all the aspects of his activity: multiples, jewelry, drawings, graphic works and editions, works of applied art, design studies, and set designs. The Catalogue Raisonné will comprise the entire body of works created from 1952 to the present and will be progressively updated with new entries.

Organized and supported by: The project is carried out by Fondazione Arnaldo Pomodoro and entrusted to the long-term staff of Arnaldo Pomodoro’s archive, under the artist’s constant supervision.

Planned Format, including translations: Digital, freely available upon registration. Italian and English.

Database: Data management is based on a structured and highly personalized program in FileMaker, which has been specially created by Fondazione Arnaldo Pomodoro, in collaboration with

Current CR Project Staff: Editor/Advisor: Arnaldo Pomodoro; Object Examiners: Bitta Leonetti, Fabrizio Cerrito; Project Coordinators: Laura Berra, Bitta Leonetti; Researchers: Federico Giani, Nadia Verga, Gioia Wouters; Archivists & Data Entry Staff: Nadia Verga, Gioia Wouters; Database Developers: Gioia Wouters with

CRSA: Is this project updating or building upon a previously published CR?

APCR: The project is updating and building upon the paper version of Catalogo ragionato della scultura published by Skira in 2007. Ten years since this publication, it was decided that the updates acquired by the archive, together with the most recent information, in addition to the documentation of the other areas of research, should merge into an online publication.

CRSA: Where are you in your project? What are your research deadlines, and what deadlines are ahead?

APCR: The first online release is expected by the end of 2018 and it consists in an ongoing work to be developed in the years to come.

CRSA: Within the Fondazione Arnaldo Pomodoro, how does the artist’s archive relate to the Catalogue Raisonné project?

APCR: The online edition of the Catalogue Raisonné is a project developed along with the work of the artist's archive. The cataloguing process began in the ‘50s, when Pomodoro began collecting press clippings, documents, and photographs related to his work. The archive is a reference point for auction houses, galleries, foundations, university departments, and scholars. Thanks to constant updates, the archive is enriched daily with information and materials related to Arnaldo Pomodoro’s works, bibliography, and biography, ensuring that any data useful for the correct interpretation of his work is always available and that no detail is lost.

CRSA: Once the digital publication is finalized, will you consider adapting a new print version?

APCR: A digital archive (that remains open and thus constantly updatable) can become the starting point for a more structured system to create different types of publications, both in digital and paper formats.

CRSA: As the prior print publication featured the “first complete documentary research on the entire existing bibliography,” will any similarly unique research resources be made available through the digital publication?

APCR: The online Catalogue Raisonné maintains a system of database relations, showing the related references for each displayed piece of information. The web application will be integrated into the current artist’s website and allow consultation of a vast database of information related to the artworks, exhibitions, bibliography, and the artist’s biography with detailed and diversified search windows for each section.

CRSA: Will the digital publication be released in stages or launched all at once? How will digital updates be managed?

APCR: FileMaker’s ability to communicate directly with the MySQL database of a web application will be exploited to enable real-time inclusion and updating of information published on the online Catalogue Raisonné, eliminating the intermediate step of re-processing and re-entering the information for the web.

CRSA: How will the digital publication handle illustrations of sculpture? Will multiple views of sculptural works be available, for instance?

APCR: A central part of the software concerns the integrated management of multimedia documents (images, PDF files, web links, video or audio recordings); in fact each artwork can be supplied with multiple images which need to be easily accessible and available to allow in-depth analysis of the work itself and for dissemination purposes, or have accompanying documents, illustrative or promotional films, references to specialized sites and other webpages.

 CRSA: What specific challenges do you face in researching Arnaldo Pomodoro?

APCR: The exhaustive cataloguing of an artist’s works provides the opportunity for an overall re-evaluation of his work in general, in terms that necessarily include categories such as the method and critical history. In this case then, of an artist such as Arnaldo Pomodoro, whose work has developed over sixty years in adjacent, yet conceptually interwoven disciplinary fields such as sculpture and graphics, set design and jewelry art, the task becomes even more difficult and stimulating.

To learn more, visit Fondazione Arnaldo Pomodoro’s website at or contact the Arnaldo Pomodoro Catalogue Raisonné at

Henri Michaux Catalogue Raisonné

Artist: Henri Michaux (1899 – 1994)
Scope: Comprehensive
Years Covered: 1925 -1984
Database: custom-designed software
Print or Digital: digital
Schedule: Research has been on going since 2001. A publication has not yet been set.
Key Staff: Micheline Phankim, Rainer M. Mason, Franck Leibovici

CRSA:  This project will be the first catalogue raisonné on Henri Michaux. What are some of the project’s primary resources?
HMCR: We used the studio collection as a basis, then, the photos archives of the previous galleries, like the Point Cardinal Gallery, in Paris.

CRSA:  What specific challenges do you face in researching Michaux?
HMCR: Michaux did not provide any dates, and he did not give titles to his paintings and drawings. So finding an accurate date is here a strong issue.  We can not rely on dates published in museum catalogues, because depending on the publication, the same painting may get different dates, and because these dates were given by either the art dealer or by a collector not paying much attention to this issue. Also, generic categories are not so much of a help: applying the term “Indian ink” to more than 500 works does not allow us to discriminate and go through the works. Nor the dimensions, as the size of the paper is usually standard. This is why we needed to create a software which would take into account the properties of Michaux works. For instance, tools as queries by similarities, or tagging or family resemblances will be of a great help for future investigations. Additionally, most of the works between 1925 and the 50’s are largely un-documented. We have lists of galleries or museums exhibitions, which happened during that time, but with with very few images or descriptions of the works which were exhibited.

CRSA:  How do you think this research will help change our understanding of Michaux’s work?
HMCR: The catalogue raisonné allows us to put works next to each other and set up series and family resemblances, which is very helpful to date works which have been un-dated for years.

CRSA:  Are there plans for additional content, such as essays or appendices?
HMCR: Yes, an essay (just released) takes care of the epistemological and methodological issues of the Michaux catalogue raisonné. It has been published first in France as an autonomous book, but will be linked as an ebook to the catalogue raisonné itself: Franck Leibovici, Henri Michaux: Voir (une enquête), Paris : 2014, PUPS. ISBN : 978-2-84050-930-1

CRSA:  Once the digital publication is finalized, will you consider adapting a print version?
HMCR: The digital edition will be the main one. It is today the most relevant medium to conduct a research. A print version would be then a selection among the works, but it would not make sense to turn it into a fac simile of the the electronic edition. We would lose all the technical advantages of digital organisations (facets, tags, and so on).

For more information, please visit:
Or contact:

Sam Francis Catalogue Raisonné of Paintings

Artist: Sam Francis (1923-1994)
Title:  Sam Francis: Catalogue Raisonné of Canvas and Panel Paintings, 1946-1994
Key Contributors:  Edited by Debra Burchett-Lere with featured essay by William C. Agee
Publisher:  University of California Press
Published Date:  2011
ISBN-10: 0520264304 | ISBN-13: 978-0520264304 0
Organized by: Sam Francis Foundation, Pasadena, CA
Works covered:  1,850-plus paintings on canvas and panel

CRSA: The Sam Francis Catalogue Raisonné is both a print publication for essays and texts, and a digital publication on DVD for artwork entries.  What was behind the decision to publish in this dual format?

SFCR: Working with the University of California Press at Berkeley provided an ideal atmosphere of collaboration for us to explore ideas to develop this educational project. As this was UC Press’s first artist’s catalogue raisonné they were open to exploring alternative ways of presenting information. We felt it would be important to not only offer a richly illustrated “coffee table” book with art historical texts, but to provide additional data about the artist, his work, and his life that could function as a browsable resource. The boxed set was developed to include the book and two DVDs that can be accessed on any computer (great for students and researchers without the need for the internet) with capability to search by topics, artworks, dates, exhibitions, bibliography, etc. The DVD data can be transferred directly to the reader’s computer database so the contents be used as a research source on a daily basis.

The packaged set offers a traditional book with vibrant color images accompanying a comprehensive scholarly text by William C. Agee, as well as the most detailed, anecdote-packed biography of Sam Francis ever published. The two DVDs offer options for the reader to discover Francis’s paintings more fully through thousands of supplementary documentary photographs, essays about Francis’s paint methods and studios, examples of his writings, exhibition history, detailed bibliography, and two videos of rare film footage showing Francis at work.

With the DVDs capability of providing more comprehensive data, we were able to allow ample space for the illustrations. The reader can enlarge many of the painting images and “zoom-in” for closer study. One of the main reasons we opted for using the DVDs was the fact that we would not be as limited to text and illustration constraints with a printed book format. Therefore we were able to include additional notes and detail photographs such as signatures and inscriptions.

CRSA: How much time was dedicated to research in advance of the publication?

SFCR: Francis did not always photograph or identify paintings over the years as he created them — so the archival records have not been the only resource for information gathering. A limited registration procedure was initiated by his studio assistants in the early 1970s that resulted in a compilation of “doc” cards that documented a large percentage of his artworks that continues to be updated and catalogued to date. After his death in 1994, records were consolidated from the artist’s studios around the world (Francis had studios in Paris, New York, Santa Monica, Palo Alto, Tokyo, etc.), as well as other resources to document his oeuvre. We began to focus our efforts in consideration of creating a catalogue of the canvas and panel paintings, and some works have more data than others due to their public exhibition history, auction records, etc. The resulting publication with UCPress was conceived as a “living catalogue raisonné,” subject to change and expansion as new information continues to come to light. We notated that we are planning to publish an addendum in the future — probably online.

CRSA: What has been the project’s most valuable research resource?

SFCR: The artist’s artworks, his personal and business archives, as well as sources listed below continue to be the primary resources for our information.

This sources include:
Polaroids taken by studio assistants of works over the years in the studio
Correspondence and personal letters
Business & sales records
Black and white negative strips of artworks, studio shots, exhibitions
Old slides, transparencies, and black and white photographs of artworks, studio shots, exhibitions, etc.
Archives and business records of the galleries, curators and museums
Conservation records
Lists and notes by the artist
Exhibition checklists, catalogues, newspaper articles, auction records, other documentation
Interviews, development of an oral history archive, as well as correspondence with individuals who worked with him (especially studio assistants) and knew him, such as: friends, family, colleagues, collectors of his work, exhibitors of his work, dealers, galleries, curators, etc.
Identification cards assigned to a large percentage of the artworks since the early 1970s

In addition we gathered information housed at the Getty Research Institute (including the Sam Francis Papers in the special collections), Los Angeles County Museum of Art library, the Morgan Library, UCLA library, Archives of American Art, among many other sources.

CRSA: Is research ongoing?  Will other areas of Sam Francis’ practice eventually be published as a CR?

SFCR:  Since 1995 we have been archiving unique works on paper as well as monotypes and prints. Research continues as we plan to begin publishing an online document for the “works on paper.” As the Sam Francis Foundation does not authenticate or render opinions on artworks the information we provide is for educational purposes. We anticipate launching “works on paper” by June 2015 — starting with Francis’s earliest period beginning in 1945. We plan to continue publishing different periods of his career, including updated data about prints (lithographs, etchings, screen prints) as well as ceramics and sculpture.

CRSA: How does the project intend to address updates to information in this CR?

SFCR:  As mentioned, we aim to provide online updates to the UC Press catalogue and are compiling results of our ongoing research and inputting this into one of the best systems designed for catalogue raisonné research –the wonderful panOpticon database! This software platform makes research so thorough and provides many links and ways to check data. panOpticon has designed this produce to allow for a seamless transfer of data to the web.

The following video offers a remarkable preview of the Sam Francis Catalogue Raisonné. For additional information, visit the Sam Francis Foundation at


N. C. Wyeth Catalogue Raisonné of Paintings

Artist: N. C. (Newell Convers)  Wyeth  (1882-1945)
Title:  N. C. Wyeth / Catalogue Raisonné of Paintings (two volumes)
Key Contributors:  by Christine B. Podmaniczky; with essay by Joyce Hill Stoner
Publisher:  Wyeth Foundation for American Art, Brandywine River Museum of Art in conjunction with Scala Publishers, Ltd.
Published Date:  2008
ISBN: 978-1-85759-478-2
Organized by/Supported by: Organized by the Brandywine River Museum of Art; supported by the Wyeth Foundation for American Art
Works covered:   1,928 paintings
Years covered:  Oct. 1902 – Oct. 1945

CRSA: How is the N. C. Wyeth Catalogue Raisonné of Paintings organized?
Christine Podmaniczky: The catalogue is divided intosections—Illustration, Murals and Architectural Decoration, Commercial Work, Landscapes, Still Life, Portraiture and Private Paintings and Other Work. Within these distinctions, the paintings are presented chronologically. The actual pages are three columns wide, and painting reproductions span one or two columns or take a complete page.
The catalogue opens with an extensive historical essay and an essay on Wyeth’s working methods from the viewpoint of a conservator.  Back matter includes a bibliography, time line, and exhibition history.

CRSA: How how much time was dedicated to research?
CP: Research and organization for the printed version were completed over a period of 18 years.  Beginning in 1990, the project was conducted by a half-time staff member of the Brandywine River Museum of Art; after 1999, the project included a full time staff member and a part time assistant. Since the publication of the hardcover version in the 2008, the BRMA has supported regular updates to the on-line version.

CRSA: Looking back, what was the project’s most valuable resource?
CP: To our knowledge, N. C. Wyeth did not keep daybooks or other records of his work. Therefore, his correspondence turned out to be the most crucial resource for the project. N. C. Wyeth was an avid letter writer, and his letters to his family (preserved by the family) were valuable for descriptions of the paintings on which he worked and for accounts of the original disposition of paintings.  Also valuable in establishing provenance were collections of secondary correspondence, such as letters from owners written to the Wyeth family after N. C. Wyeth’s death and letters written to the Brandywine River Museum from 1970 on.

CRSA: Are there other categories of Wyeth’s work not covered in this CR?
CP: There are entries for approximately 800 drawings in the on-line version of the N. C. Wyeth catalogue raisonné.  No further volumes are being considered.

CRSA: How does the online N. C. Wyeth Catalogue Raisonné differ from the print edition?
CP: The on-line version of the catalogue raisonné can accommodate far more information than the printed edition, and on-line entries are usually more detailed than those in the printed edition.  For example, additional images can be attached to the on-line entries, making it possible to illustrate both an original and altered appearance, a problem in conservation or a view of an installation that is no longer current. On-line entries might also contain relevant quotations from letters, source material, or other archival matter.

CRSA: Is your research ongoing?
CP: N. C. Wyeth’s work is a particular focus of the Brandywine River Museum of Art, and ongoing research for various projects inevitably reveals new material related to the artist’s career.  When relevant, such information is incorporated into the on-line catalogue raisonné.  In the past the museum has supported a review committee to consider additions to the catalogue; that process is suspended at this time while the submission forms and procedures are evaluated.

For more information, please visit the N. C. Wyeth catalogue raisonné website www.ncwyeth.orgChristine Podmaniczky can be reached at or 610-388-8354.

Jasper Johns Catalogue Raisonné of Drawings

Jasper Johns.  Two Flags , 1969. Graphite pencil and collage on paper. 22 1/4 x 30 3/4 in. The Menil Collection, Houston. © Jasper Johns / Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. Photograph: Jamie M. Stukenberg / Professional Graphics Inc., Rockford, Illinois.

Jasper Johns. Two Flags, 1969. Graphite pencil and collage on paper. 22 1/4 x 30 3/4 in. The Menil Collection, Houston. © Jasper Johns / Licensed by VAGA, New York, NY. Photograph: Jamie M. Stukenberg / Professional Graphics Inc., Rockford, Illinois.

Artist:  Jasper Johns (b. 1930)
Planned Title:  The Catalogue Raisonné of the Drawings of Jasper Johns
Years Covered:  1954-2014
Print or Digital:  Print
Publisher: To be announced
Database:  FileMaker
Schedule:  2011–2016; Expected publication date Fall 2016
Supported by:  The Menil Collection, Houston, in cooperation with the artist
Key Staff: Allegra Pesenti (Chief Curator of the Menil Drawing Institute), Bernice Rose (Advisor), Eileen Costello (Editor and Project Director), Kate Ganz (Senior Editor), Caroline Gabrielli (Senior Project Associate), Christian Wurst (Exhibitions Researcher), Kim Costello (Literature Researcher)


Project publication updates (December 2018):

Schedule: 2011–2018; Published December 2018

Publisher: Menil Foundation/Yale University Press

Key Staff: Eileen Costello (Editor and Project Director), Kate Ganz (Primary Object Examiner), Caroline Gabrielli (Senior Project Associate), Christian Wurst (Project Associate), Kimberly Costello (Bibliography Researcher), Bernice Rose (Chief Editor Emerita)


CRSA:  What are some of the Johns Drawings Catalogue Raisonné’s primary resources?
JJDCR:  At the start of our project, the artist’s studio provided us with Mr. Johns’s complete drawings inventory, which we migrated into our specially designed database. This laid the foundation for our research in addition to the numerous comprehensive retrospective exhibitions of Mr. Johns’s work that have taken place over the past several decades. We were also very fortunate to have access to invaluable primary resources located in the archives of the Museum of Modern Art, New York; The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles; The National Gallery, D.C; The Art Institute of Chicago; The Menil Foundation, and a number of commercial galleries. The Archives of American Art continues to be a rich resource, especially The Leo Castelli Gallery records, which became available the year we commenced our research. Our project has also benefited from the artist’s cooperation and his studio’s assistance, especially in regard to photography. Further, as a Menil Foundation project, we benefit from their reputation for publishing scholarly exhibition catalogues as well as the highly regarded René Magritte and Max Ernst catalogues raisonné.

CRSA:  This project is one of two separate catalogues raisonnés currently being prepared on the artist.  Is there any project overlap or opportunities to collaborate?
JJDCR:  Roberta Bernstein, under the aegis of the Wildenstein Institute, had begun work on a catalogue raisonné of the artist’s paintings and sculptures several years previous to our project. Although dealing with entirely different mediums, in a number of instances, the two projects often shared secondary (literature and exhibition) research, which proved mutually beneficial.

CRSA:  How do you hope this publication might affect the public’s understanding of Jasper Johns?
JJDCR:  The Drawings Catalogue Raisonné will present each drawing as factually and visually accurate as possible.  As the definitive publication of Mr. Johns’s drawings oeuvre, our hope is to make that aspect of the artist’s work more accessible—visually and intellectually—to a broader audience.

CRSA: What specific challenges do you face in researching Johns?
JJDCR:  The extensive amount of primary resources available to us concerning the artist and his work has expedited our research. The artist’s renown has also facilitated our project. We’ve dealt with the anticipated challenges in compiling a catalogue raisonné such as artworks with complicated provenances or exhibitions that were a little more difficult to verify because of a lack of records. However, our dedicated and persistent research staff has been able to track down many of these “unavailable” records as well as a number of “lost” drawings, which we weren’t entirely sure would ever be found.

CRSA: Are there plans for additional content beyond artwork/exhibitions/bibliography, such as essays or appendices?
JJDCR: There is discussion of including a drawing-centric chronology. However, as of this date, it is still too early to decide on additional content.

CRSA: Does this project update or expand upon a previously published catalogue raisonné of the artist’s work?
JJDCR: This will be the first catalogue raisonné of the artist’s drawings.

CRSA: Are there plans for supplements or a digital adaptation?
JJDCR: For now we are planning a printed publication only. However, we are considering adapting a digital version, but no decisions have been made about this yet.

For more information, please refer to the website or contact Caroline Gabrielli at,

The Daumier-Register

CRSA recently sat down with Dieter and Lilian Noack to talk about their monumental 14 year effort, the Daumier-Register, an ongoing digital catalogue of the works of Honoré Daumier. The site launched in 2001, giving it the distinction of being one of the first and longest running digital catalogues of one artist’s work in the field. Over the course of our interview, we learned many ways their project relates to and departs from the traditional (printed) catalogue raisonné format:

Artist: Honoré Daumier (1808 – 1879)
Organized by / Staff: Dieter and Lilian Noack
Publication format: Digital, accessible via and
Scope: 4000 lithographs, 1000 wood engravings, 550 oil paintings and 100 sculptures
Forthcoming content: 1,500 drawings
Database: Microsoft Access
Prior publications: The Daumier-Register builds upon a fairly long list of catalogues on the artist, dating back to 1888, including those by:

Arsène Alexandre (Paris, H. Laurens, 1888)
Erich Klossowski (München, R. Piper 1908 and München, R. Piper, 1923)
Eduard Fuchs (München, A. Langen, 1930)
Jean Adhémar’s (New York, Macmillan, 1954)
K.E. Maison (v. 1 London, Thames and Hudson, 1967-68,v.2 London Thames and Hudson New York, NY Graphic Society 1968)
Gabriele Mandel, Luigi Barzini and Pierre Georgel (Milano, Rizzoli 1971, and Paris, Flammarion 1972)

Primary resources: A primary resource for the Daumier-Register is the 1968 CR by K.E. Maison, but they have built on this by contacting museums and archives, and reviewing exhibition and auction catalogues from the 1860 onward with the help of the Watson Library and Frick Library.
Updates: While their database is updated regularly as research develops, the site undergoes a major update once or twice per year. Minor changes occur on an ongoing basis.
Digital-only benefits: The site includes three language options (English, French, and German), multimedia content, and more than 700 “themes” related to the artist and his practice so that scholars can identify, for example, all works that include or relate to “lawyers” or “bookdealers,” or combine up to four themes in a search.

Self Portrait by Honoré Daumier, 19th century, drypoint. Property of the Cleveland Museum of Art. Gift of E. Weyhe 1930.534

Self Portrait by Honoré Daumier, 19th century, drypoint. Property of the Cleveland Museum of Art. Gift of E. Weyhe 1930.534

The Roy Lichtenstein Catalogue Raisonné

“Roy on Ladder, 1991” – Photograph © Laurie Lambrecht, 1991

“Roy on Ladder, 1991” – Photograph © Laurie Lambrecht, 1991

Artist:  Roy Lichtenstein (1923 – 1997)
Planned Title: Roy Lichtenstein: A Catalogue Raisonné
Scope: The catalogue will illustrate every confirmed work and publish all known paintings, sculpture, drawings, prints, commissions and other artwork by Roy Lichtenstein. The artist produced approximately 5,000 works during his lifetime (not counting the full edition runs of prints or multiples).
Years Covered:  The earliest works date from c. 1940 and the latest, 1997, plus a limited number of posthumous sculpture casts and prints.
Print or Digital:  We are planning to publish first an online catalogue version. When persuasively complete, we expect to issue a summary of our research in book form, distributed by a major University Press.
Database:  The Museum System (TMS) until 2011; panOpticon since then.
Schedule:  A first digital version is planned to be online in 2017.
Publisher: To be defined
Organized by:  The catalogue is organized and managed by the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation. Jack Cowart (Executive Director), Andrea C. Theil (Project Manager).

CRSA:  What are some of the Roy Lichtenstein Catalogue Raisonné’s primary resources?
RLCR:  Since its beginning in 1999, the Roy Lichtenstein Foundation has been systematically sorting through the extensive artist studio records. Lichtenstein and his studio staff photographed most of his artworks in the studio, and they accumulated contemporary documentation about his art, commissions, editions, and exhibitions. The material includes correspondence, exhibition files, catalogues, source books, studio and installation photographs as well as films, video, audio tapes and other materials related to the creation and production of Lichtenstein’s art. Of major importance are also the artwork and documentation held by the Estate of Roy Lichtenstein. When it comes to technical questions we are continuously benefiting from the experience of Lichtenstein’s longtime studio assistants.

Provenance research usually starts with looking through the comprehensive Leo Castelli Gallery records at the Archives of American Art which cover the long relationship between the artist and his lifetime gallerist. We also refer to the oral histories conducted over the past decade by Avis Berman on behalf of the Foundation. She interviewed (and still interviews) family members, friends, and studio staff as well as people who were involved directly or indirectly in Lichtenstein’s creative life. Our research is enriched by the detailed memories and deep knowledge of Lichtenstein’s art offered by his widow Dorothy Lichtenstein.

CRSA:  What specific challenges do you face in preparing the RL Catalogue Raisonné?
RLCR:  One of our challenges is the attempt to create a complex online reference tool which covers numerous aspects of Lichtenstein’s work – sometimes it is rather difficult to establish a clear and integrated architecture. But with the help of our panOpticon database we are making great progress.

CRSA: Will the existing RL Catalogue Raisonné of Prints be included in your online CR version? 
RLCR:  Yes, it will. Lichtenstein was a prolific print maker, and we are happy to say that the existing catalogue raisonné of his prints (published by Hudson Hills press in association with the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.) has absolved us of having to redo that part of his work. But we will reorganize the records, making minor corrections as we have been able to find new info.

For more information, please refer to the Lichtenstein Foundation’s website, or contact

The Donald Judd Catalogue Raisonné

Donald Judd in his studio © Judd Foundation

Donald Judd in his studio © Judd Foundation

Artist:  Donald Judd (1928-1994)
Scope:  Sculptures, paintings, and woodblocks
Years Covered:  1940s to 1994
Print or Digital:  Undecided
Database:  FileMaker Pro
Schedule:  The project was begun in earnest in 2009, although research that benefits the catalogue raisonné was begun several years earlier.  A publication date has not yet been set.
Supported by:  Judd Foundation and the support of anonymous donors

CRSA:  What are some of the Donald Judd Catalogue Raisonné’s primary resources?
DJCR:  We used the lifetime catalogue raisonné (Del Balso, Smith, and Smith 1975) as a jumping off point.  However, this catalogue only includes work completed between August 1960 and mid-1974, leaving several decades at the beginning and end of his career completely uncatalogued.  Judd worked with a wide range of fabricators, so our primary sources are the fabricator records and a running record that Judd’s studio assistants kept beginning in 1968.  We’re lucky to have a number of the studio assistants involved with the project and their memories and stories add so much depth and context to our daily research.

CRSA:  What is something you have come across in your research that changed your understanding of the way Donald Judd worked?
DJCR:  This past June we opened Judd’s Soho studio to the public after three years of active restoration.  The catalogue raisonné offices are located in the basement of the building, which affords us special insight into how Judd’s living and working spaces continue to resonate with the art, design, and architecture communities.  It has brought Judd’s insistence that “art should be made as one lives” into high relief and affects how we interact with the research we are collecting. One starts to really understand the importance of permanently installed spaces when working in one.

CRSA: What specific challenges do you face in researching Donald Judd?
DJCR:  Each catalogue raisonné project has a different set of challenges even though they may look similar on the surface.  It’s been complicated to parse the varying records among the large number of fabricators he used.  The numbering system became a bit confused at a certain point with duplicate numbers, unfinished works, rejected works, and restored works.  It can also be extremely difficult to identify exactly which works were exhibited as Judd’s works are nearly all untitled and black-and-white installation photographs may only tell you what type of work was shown (i.e. a large “stack”) not the exact work that was shown (i.e. the large stack in copper and pink Plexiglas from 1983).

For more information, please refer to Judd Foundation’s website

The David Smith Catalogue Raisonné

David Smith in his workshop, Bolton Landing, 1953. Photograph by the artist. © The Estate of David Smith/Licensed by VAGA, New York.

David Smith in his workshop, Bolton Landing, 1953. Photograph by the artist. © The Estate of David Smith/Licensed by VAGA, New York.

Artist: David Smith (1906-1965)
Planned Publication Title: David Smith Sculptures: A Catalogue Raisonné
Scope and Years Covered: Although best known for his steel and stainless steel sculptures, Smith also worked in coral, iron, lead, wood, marble, cast aluminum and bronze. The CR will comprise his entire body of sculptural works, created from 1932 to 1965, which includes more than 600 free-standing works, as well as cast silver and bronze relief sculptures and a small group of cast metal jewelry pendants.
Organized and Supported by: The Estate of David Smith (a.k.a. Terminal Iron Works LLC); Candida Smith, Rebecca Smith and Peter Stevens, Executive Director.
Planned Format: To be determined. We would like to publish the CR first as a book, and perhaps later in digital form.
Database: Filemaker Pro
Current CR Project Staff: Susan Cooke, Associate Director, The Estate of David Smith & Catalogue Raisonné Director. Allyn Shepard, Senior Researcher. Tracee Ng, Researcher.

CRSA: Is this project updating or building upon a previously published CR?
Susan Cooke: Yes. Our project is profoundly indebted to Rosalind Krauss’s CR of Smith’s sculpture, published by Garland Publishing, Inc., in 1977, which she originally submitted to Harvard University in 1969 as a component of her dissertation on Smith’s work. The Estate’s CR will re-verify, revise, update and expand the information presented by Krauss and greatly increase the visual documentation of individual works. Smith, with rare exceptions, did not make editions or multiple casts of his sculptures, and The Estate has never authorized posthumous casts of his works. In addition, because he sold or gave away few sculptures during his life and his own records and the inventories Krauss and the Estate completed soon after his death were so thorough, we don’t expect to add significantly to the number of works that comprise this body of his work.

CRSA: Do you have a publisher?
SC: We’ve had some preliminary conversations with digital and web publishers and hope to begin conversations with print publishers later this year. We have largely completed the inventory of Smith’s sculptures, have received CR application forms back from nearly all of the public and private collections we contacted, and have gathered most the data we need to write physical descriptions, and compile exhibition, literature and provenance histories for the individual works.
We are in the process of defining what the components of the CR–the nature and scope of the individual catalogue entries, the accompanying historical, critical, analytical and biographical essays, the concordances and back matter—and are still gathering or commissioning publication-quality photographs of the works. All of which is to say that publication of the Smith CR–as whatever form it takes as a printed or digital entity—is still several years away.

CRSA: What are some of the Smith CR’s primary resources?
SC: Beginning with the creation of his earliest sculptures, and for the rest of his life, Smith documented his work extensively, in his sketchbooks and in a prodigious body of photographs, many annotated, that he took of individual sculptures and sculpture groups. These original records and images, together with Smith’s writings, lectures and interviews, his personal and business correspondence, clippings files, his library, and, to a much lesser extent, the tools and materials he used to make his sculptures, remain part of The Estate’s collections (microfilm copies of the photographs, sketchbooks and correspondence are also accessible on microfilm at the Archives of American Art).
We have also relied heavily on the resources of the Archives of American Art, which preserves the correspondence and oral histories donated by Smith’s first wife, Dorothy Dehner, and the papers of several of his dealers and close friends; on the archives of The Museum of Modern Art, which houses much of the documentation gathered by Rosalind Krauss in the 1960s for her David Smith CR; and on many other public and private archives throughout the country. In addition, the Estate owns representative bodies of the artist’s sculptures, drawings, paintings, and prints, which we refer to constantly for information and insight about the esthetic and technical characteristics of his work. Our research also been enriched by the memories and uniquely intimate understanding of Smith’s work possessed by his daughters, Rebecca and Candida, and guided by the eye and expertise of Peter Stevens, Executive Director of the Estate for more than thirty years.

CRSA: What specific challenges do you face in researching DS?
SC: We spend a lot of time trying to answer very practical questions that then lead to interesting methodological and even philosophical discussions: how to standardize The Estate’s (and other owners’) measurements of a sculpture’s height, width and depth; how to define accurately the media and methods Smith used; how to record the physical changes to a work wrought by time or deliberate or unintended acts by the artist or others; how best to illustrate in photographs a work’s three-dimensional materiality and visual multiplicity, and convey the artist’s intention that these be experienced over time and as a function of the viewer’s own movement through space? Some of these questions also bedevil CR authors working with two-dimensional media, but the verbal and graphic conventions for representing sculpture seem less settled and less precise.

CRSA: When examining artworks, what is one thing the Smith project particularly makes sure to note?
SC: Like all CR researchers, we try to examine every work directly and also study them in newly taken high-resolution digital photographs. Looking closely at works, even those we assumed we knew well, has made us more sensitive to the importance of color and surface treatment in every sculpture Smith created. These aspects of his formal and expressive vocabulary have been often overlooked, if only because until fairly recently the images used to illustrate his work in books and catalogues were almost exclusively the artist’s own highly evocative, but rarely detailed or close-up, black and white photographs.
We also try to take or obtain photographs of all signatures and inscriptions, because these have sometimes been ignored or incompletely or incorrectly recorded, and we also try to document whether the current base is original to the work. We also re-verify the identification of each work’s media and method of fabrication, because the artist’s own descriptions and information provided by subsequent owners (and even The Estate) are not infrequently cursory, contradictory, incomplete, or just plain wrong.

CRSA: What is something you have come across in your research that changed your understanding of the way DS worked?
SC: Smith’s habit of working in series is well known and often determines the conceptual structure of major surveys of his sculpture. By trying to pinpoint the start and completion dates of each individual work, whether or not Smith designated them as part of a series, we’ve been able to document more precisely when and how various series coincide and overlap, and to demonstrate the cross-pollination that occurs among sculpture series and between sculptures and paintings, drawings and photographs. Smith’s work is both tremendously heterogeneous and interconnected by recurring formal and expressive motifs. We hope to devise a visual design and structure for the CR that enables its users to understand the development of Smith works in terms of chronological simultaneity and chronological sequence.

CRSA: Are you preparing additional content beyond artwork, exhibitions, bibliography and chronology?
SC: We would like to quote Smith’s statements and sketchbook notes about particular works as well as summarize the critical commentary on the major sculptures in the individual CR entries. We also feel strongly that it’s important to illustrate most of his sculptures from multiple viewpoints, using recent color photographs and vintage black and white and color images taken by the artist, and also to illustrate related drawings and paintings, as a way of demonstrating his thinking processes and honoring his declaration that he did not “recognize the lines drawn between painting and sculpture aesthetically”.
We will provide a detailed, illustrated biographical chronology, and we are considering including a number of longer, analytical and historical essays that will address the nature and stature of Smith’s sculptural achievements, his materials and working methods, the relationship between figuration and abstraction in his work, the concept of the sculptural series, and the evolution and significance of the sculpture installations he created on his property at Bolton Landing.

For more information, please contact The Estate of David Smith, 333 Hudson Street, Suite 904, New York, NY 10013. Tel: 212-627-4452. Email:

The Isamu Noguchi Catalogue Raisonné

Isamu Noguchi in his Long Island City studio with “Red Untitled” (1965-66), © The Isamu Noguchi Foundation and Garden Museum, New York

Isamu Noguchi in his Long Island City studio with “Red Untitled” (1965-66), © The Isamu Noguchi Foundation and Garden Museum, New York

Artist:  Isamu Noguchi (1904-1988)
Scope:  Comprehensive
Years Covered:  1924 – 1988
Format:  Digital, accessible at
Schedule:  Research has been ongoing for many years.  The first chapter of the publication premiered online in 2011.  New chapters will be added annually until research is complete (expected in 2018).
Database:  The Museum System (TMS)
Supported by:  The Isamu Noguchi Catalogue Raisonné is a project of The Isamu Noguchi Foundation and Garden Museum, New York, with generous lead support from Tsuenko and Shoji Sadao.  Additional support from the Dedalus Foundation, the Henry Luce Foundation, and the National Endowment for the Arts.

CRSA:  What are some of the INCR’s primary resources?
INCR:  Noguchi was not very rigorous about studio inventories – very few were ever conducted, and he frequently changed galleries. Our project’s most consistent archival resource has been the artist’s extant archives, including more than 17,000 photographs of artworks, exhibitions, his various studios and travels.  In the late 1970s, Noguchi’s studio assistants also completed what became the first catalogue raisonné of his sculpture.  The Sculpture of Isamu Noguchi, 19241979: A Catalogue (Garland Press: 1980) was compiled with the help of Noguchi, and became the foundation for all future research and cataloging.

CRSA:  How do you hope the INCR might affect the public’s understanding of Isamu Noguchi?
INCR:  We hope that digital publication will offer a good sense of how extremely interdisciplinary and interrelated Noguchi’s practice was throughout his lifetime.  He worked in a variety of media and formats, ranging from discrete sculpture, to industrial design, stage sets and whole environments.  We’ve arranged the publication’s chronology in a way that shows what he was working on each year, alongside where he was traveling and exhibiting.  Some years will show the premier of a stage set, coinciding with the design of a table, as well as work in stone and wood.

CRSA:  What specific challenges do you face in researching Noguchi?
INCR: One that we are working on this year has to do with Noguchi’s work in bronze.  He would begin edition series with an original intent of the edition size, but only cast on-demand.  This is not an uncommon practice, but an added complication is that as he switched foundries every couple of years, and certain casts which began in the early 1960s were not revisited until the late 1980s.  This led to some errors in accounting in a series of more than 300 individual bronze sculptures.  It’s a tangled mess, but we’re working through it by reviewing foundry invoices and a tremendous amount of correspondence between Noguchi and his galleries, fabricators, and accountant.

CRSA:  Are you preparing additional content beyond artwork, exhibitions, bibliography and chronology?
INCR:  Not at this time, but our digital platform is flexible should we decide to add more content like audio, video, downloadable resources, etc.

CRSA:  Would you do anything extra if time and resources were unlimited?
INCR:  A fully digitized archive would be a tremendous help to our project and others researching Noguchi’s life and work.

CRSA:  Will updates be ongoing?
INCR:  We plan for updates and additions through at least 2018.

CRSA:  Would you consider adapting a print version?
INCR:  The Noguchi Museum has considered the possibility of publishing excerpts from the digital publication when research is complete.  We also hope that advances in digital press printing may make it possible to create a “print on demand” feature from our existing digital platform in the near future.

To learn more, visit The Noguchi Museum’s website at, or contact the The Isamu Noguchi Catalogue Raisonné by emailing

Robert Motherwell Painting and Collages: A Catalogue Raisonné, 1941 – 1991

After more than ten years of research and preparation, Robert Motherwell Painting and Collages: A Catalogue Raisonné, 1941 – 1991 was released by the Dedalus Foundation in fall 2012, published by Yale University Press, and printed in Verona by Trifolio.

In the process of publishing this extensive record of Robert Motherwell’s life and work, the Dedalus Foundation chose to film the task of printing this three-volume publication while the book’s authors oversaw the process in Verona, Italy, in May and June 2012.  As a result, we have an in-depth picture into the process of printing a seminal art publication.  View the video online:

Video realized by Elettra Bertucco & VRVideo
Music: W.A. Mozart, Divertimento in D Major, K. 334: VI. Rondo. Allegro performed by Sandor Frigyes & Franz Liszt Chamber Orchestra

The Richard Diebenkorn Catalogue Raisonné

Richard Diebenkorn in his studio, 1968 – © The Richard Diebenkorn Foundation, Berkeley, Calif.

Richard Diebenkorn in his studio, 1968 – © The Richard Diebenkorn Foundation, Berkeley, Calif.

Artist:  Richard Diebenkorn (1922–1993)
Scope: The Diebenkorn catalogue raisonné will be a comprehensive presentation of works by the artist. The 4 volumes of the catalogue raisonné will present some 4,900 unique artworks; primarily works on paper and paintings, but also a few mixed-media pieces and sketchbooks. RD was an active printmaker and there will be a future publication dedicated to his graphic works.
Database:  TMS from Gallery Systems
Print or Digital:  Print
Publisher: Yale University Press
Schedule:  When the project was first envisioned in the mid-90s, the estate was unaware of the full scope of the artist’s work and the level of effort needed to complete the project. It wasn’t until the Foundation established a relationship with Yale University Press–the only publisher to work on this scale for a mid-century artist–that we were able to develop a realistic sense of the time required for completion. Using a staggered schedule, two volumes on the artworks have been delivered to the editors and the last two volumes, the remaining artwork volume and the research volume with essays and supporting documents, will be wrapped up by the spring of 2014. The catalogue raisonné will go to press in 2016.
Organized by:  The Richard Diebenkorn Foundation, Berkeley, Calif.

CRSA:  What are some of the Richard Diebenkorn Catalogue Raisonné’s primary resources?
Carl Schmitz:  The estate’s records and library, communication with museums, galleries, and auction houses, and extensive research conducted at libraries and archives are some of our tangible assets. Our most valuable resource, however, is the Diebenkorn family’s involvement.

CRSA:  What is unique about the approach being taken with this catalogue raisonné?
CS:  There are two essential elements to our work on the catalogue raisonné for which we maintain the highest possible standards: the color accuracy of our reproductions and the thoroughness of our research. Richard Grant, the Foundation’s Executive Director and the artist’s son-in-law, has made a strong commitment to making sure that the color of the reproductions on the page are as accurate as possible to the artworks. A good deal of this comes from his memory of RD looking at poor quality reproductions and feeling like black and white may have been a fairer representation. Our charge is to get the color right and to that end we are performing all original digital photography while utilizing and continually exploring advanced color management.
On the research side, we have been at it long enough that it’s a good shock to the system when there are new publications and new research that really changes things. The recent biography of Diebenkorn’s colleague David Park done by Nancy Boas is one of those game-changers. It’s amazing to think that there are completely new things to be discovered about an artist like Park who we lost over 50 years ago. For Diebenkorn, we hope that the catalogue raisonné will become a widely used source for discovery of new ideas about an artist we lost 20 years ago. Some of these insights will come through the included essays written by John Elderfield, Ruth Fine, Steven Nash, Gerald Nordland, and our editor Jane Livingston. Other, more obscured pearls will be found in the chronology’s footnotes, a listing in the exhibition history, or a citation in the bibliography. A wealth of material will certainly be left on the catalogue raisonné’s cutting room floor, but it will be available to scholars in the Foundation’s archive. In the meantime, the research process that drives us up to that point will continue to be purposeful.

CRSA: What specific challenges do you face in researching Richard Diebenkorn?
CS:  We are at least somewhat fortunate that Diebenkorn didn’t often utilize non-traditional media and that he didn’t have a studio production line. This may have helped us avoid some of the difficulties involved in the authentication process. Being located in California can be a challenge given the distance to some wonderful resources like all of the New York Art Resources Consortium libraries and the Archives of American Art’s Washington headquarters, but this just means that we have to be efficient when there’s an opportunity to get out there. One of our goals is to help build more resources in the west.

CRSA: Are you preparing additional content beyond artwork, exhibitions, bibliography and chronology?
CS: There will also be essays and concordances, and a few planned special features include illustrations of items from the artist’s studio and a section dedicated to writings and statements by the artist.

CRSA: Are there plans for supplements? Would you consider adapting a digital version?
CS: We are still very much in the work of the 4 volumes that will be ink on paper but are constantly reflecting on future endeavors.

For more information, please refer to The Richard Diebenkorn Foundation’s website